Ion exchange chromatography is a process for the separation and purification of cations and anions based on their affinity to the ion exchange resin. Ion exchange chromatography is mostly applicable for the separation and purification of biomolecules such as proteins, enzymes, polypeptides, polynucleotides.

Applications of ion exchange chromatography
  • Significant cations and anions separation are possible…


Before we discuss the toxic effects of carbon monoxide, it is necessary to know about the structure of hemoglobin which is present in the red cells of the blood. Hemoglobin is an octahedral complex of Fe (II) and the four corners of the square base are occupied by four nitrogen…


Chain configuration of macromolecules and Polymers

Polymers are said to be linear if the repeating unit is joined together like a chain. The chain may be branched or joined together by cross-links of both. Thus more extensive cross-linking may lead to the formation of the three-dimensional crosses linked polymers.

Structural isomers of polymers

If we consider the polymerization of the…


In order to determine the states of matter, we deal with the aggregate of molecules as they occur in nature. The various kind of substances that makes up matter can be divided mainly into three states of matter like solids, liquids, and gases. …


What is Renewable energy?

Renewable Energy Sources

Renewable energy or clean energy is useful energy that comes from natural renewable sources like sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy is considered a new technology that used for heating, transportation, lighting in human civilization. Wind and solar energy have provided huge power for human civilization…


Function of Sodium

The chemical properties of sodium are similar to that of potassium but the biological functions to penetrate the cell membranes are different due to their different atomic size. The metals also differ in their transport mechanism and efficiency to activate enzymes. Sodium ions are more abundant outside the cells. For…


Group-14 elements (IVB) in the periodic table include carbon (C), silicon(Si), germanium, tin (Sn), and lead (Pb) with the atomic number 6, 14, 32, 50, 82. The first two elements in the carbon family occupy a special position in our life. Carbon is the key chemical element of all living…


Group-16 elements or Group-VIB contains chemical elements like oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and polonium with the atomic number 8, 16, 34, 52, 84. Oxygen is the most abundant element and makes up to 47 percent of the earth’s crust in the form of oxides and oxoacids…


Nitrogen in Periodic Table Elements

Nitrogen atomic number 7 and symbol N is the chemical element of Group 15 of the periodic table occurs as the diatomic gas dinitrogen N2 with no allotropic forms. The elements of this group like nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth are collectively called pnictogen or pnicogen from the greek…


Phosphorus in Periodic Table

Phosphorus (P), nonmetallic chemical element of the nitrogen, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth family or Group 15 (VA) of the periodic table are collectively called pnictogen or pnictides from Greek word choking. It is a colourless, semitransparent, soft, waxy solid at room temperature that glows in the dark condition. …

Chemistry Topics

Chemistry is the study of properties, structure, composition of atoms, ions, and molecules. This materials provides different Chemistry topics and questions

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