High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

High blood pressure or hypertension is a common condition where the long-term too high force of blood pushes the walls of blood vessels or arteries. If your heat can be pumped more blood into your narrowed arteries, you can come to a state of high blood pressure. Raising blood pressure not only harms your arteries and heart but also affects the rest of your body. It causes various health problems such as heart attack, stroke, kidney problems, etc. Long-term high blood pressure can cause many serious health problems. Therefore, you can always measure your blood pressure and consult your doctor to control it.

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) symptoms, types, complications, treatment
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A blood pressure reading can be measured by two numbers. The systolic pressure represents the top number and the diastolic pressure represents the bottom number. The normal value of your blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. Generally, high blood pressure has no symptoms but your blood pressure can be easily measured.


Most people do not observe any signs or symptoms of high blood pressure. A few people can be feeling headaches, shortness of breath, or nosebleeds, but these signs and symptoms aren’t specific. Generally, you can observe it at a life-threatening stage. Therefore, blood pressure monitoring can decrease the risk of life-threatening health problems.

Types of hypertension

High blood pressure is two types, primary or essential hypertension and secondary hypertension.

Primary hypertension

Essential or primary hypertension occurs due to a nonspecific lifestyle, genetic problems, and unhealthy foods in your diet. It develops gradually over many years.

Secondary hypertension

Secondary high blood pressure is developed due to various health conditions. It appears suddenly and causes higher blood pressure than primary hypertension. Various conditions and medications that cause secondary hypertension are,

  • Kidney disease
  • Hyperaldosteronism
  • Adrenal gland tumors
  • Thyroid problems
  • Certain blood vessels defects in your born
  • Various types of medications such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, pain killer drugs
  • Taking illegal drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines


Excessive pressure on your artery walls can damage your blood vessels and other parts of your body. Therefore, uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause the following main complications,

  • Heart attack or stroke
  • kidney damage
  • Heart failure
  • Vision problem
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • The trouble with memory or understanding
  • Dementia

High blood pressure treatment

In most cases or early stages of treatment, hypertension may be controlled by changing your lifestyle. We also used various types of medicine to reduce high blood pressure or hypertension. The most common lifestyle changes are,

  • Losing your body weight
  • Regular activity or exercise
  • Eating healthy foods in your diet
  • Reduce taking food that contains a high level of sodium
  • Limit or stop drinking alcohol
  • Stop smoking habit
  • Cut back on caffeine
  • Reduce your stress

We also used the following types of medication to reduce your blood pressure,

  • Diuretics
  • Beta-blockers
  • Alpha-blockers
  • Mixed alpha- and beta-blockers
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • Vasodilators

The most common medicines of such classes are,




  • Phentolamine
  • Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride
  • Tolazoline
  • Prazosin
  • Terazosin
  • Doxazosin

Mixed alpha- and beta-blockers

  • Labetalol
  • Carvedilol

ACE inhibitors

Calcium channel blockers

  • Verapamil
  • Nifedipine
  • Diltiazem
  • Felodipine
  • Amlodipine
  • Nicardipine

Angiotensin II receptor blockers

  • Losartan
  • Irbesartan
  • Candesartan
  • Telmisartan
  • Valsartan


These medicines are used commonly for the treatment or prevention of high blood pressure or hypertension problem.




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